Scaling Bitcoin - Bitcoin Scalability Workshops

Establishing a smart contract commercial scenario: Chainlink, Zk-Snarks and sharding technology work together to make the ultimate killer

This text was translated from Chinese, open following link in Chrome and translate to see all images:
https://bihu.com/article/1242138347
EDIT: found an English text with pictures:
https://medium.com/@rogerfeng/making-smart-contracts-work-for-business-how-chainlink-zk-snarks-sharding-finally-delivered-8f268af75ca2
Author: Feng Jie translation: Liu Sha
“The highest state of technology is to integrate into the various scenes of everyday life, to fade away from high-tech outerwear and become a part of everyday life.” – Mark Weiser
People in the future will not even think that smart contracts are "innovative." By that time, smart contracts would permeate every aspect of life, and people couldn't even imagine what the era of non-digital currency would look like.
Later historians may divide human business history into two eras, the pre-smart contract era and the post-smart contract era. After all, digital money has brought unprecedented changes to the nature and patterns of business practices in the real world. An anonymous member of the Chainlink community once said: "Smart contracts can change the DNA of the business."
Of course, like all the technological revolutions of the past, smart contracts also need to reach a "tipping point" to truly achieve large-scale applications. So we need to ask ourselves two questions:
  1. What exactly is this so-called tipping point?
  2. As of August 2019, have we reached this tipping point?
To reach the tipping point means unlocking the ultimate nirvana of business.
Tipping point We can think about this issue from the perspective of mainstream companies. Imagine what a perfect smart contract platform should look like. What characteristics should this platform have? Or what features must be possessed?
To reach the tipping point, you must establish a public chain with the following four characteristics:
  1. Privacy protection
  2. In addition to the cryptocurrency, the transaction can also be settled in mainstream legal currency and comply with the regulatory requirements of financial markets such as ISO 20022.
  3. Achieve scalability without sacrificing decentralization or security, that is, solving the "impossible triangle problem."
  4. Connect the external data under the chain, that is, solve the "prophecy problem."
Now that we have Chainlink, zk-snarks and sharding technology, we have reached this tipping point.
Next, let's explore how this ultimate nirvana is actually made. Our discussion will be mainly from the perspective of Ethereum, which is still the top smart contract platform for community size and mainstream applications.
So what about the private chain?
Before delving into it, I want to take the time to solve an unavoidable problem. The mainstream view has always believed that the private chain is a more suitable solution for the enterprise. Therefore, we first dialectically analyze the two advantages and two major drawbacks of the private chain.
Disadvantages
  1. Centralization leads to relatively lower security
It's not surprising that IBM and Maersk's blockchain freight alliances have a hard time finding customers who are willing to join. How can other freight companies be willing to let their biggest competitors (Maersk) verify their trading data? Only madmen dare to do this.
  1. The staking of the horses occupy the hills:
This problem is even more serious than centralization. John Wolpert, co-founder of the IBM blockchain, wrote an excellent article called Breaking the Barriers to Realize Security: Why Companies Should Embrace the Ethereum Public Chain, which he covered in detail in the article.
If every company builds its own private chain, it will lead to chaos in the mountains. Today's B2B ecosystem is very complex. Imagine the innumerable private chains of the world intertwined to form a huge "spider web." This is not only cost-effective, but also not scalable.
The starting point of the blockchain is to break down barriers instead of building more barriers.
"One day, one of your big buyers called you to ask if you want to join their private chain. You promised. The next day you received a call from the wholesaler to ask you the same question. Then came the supplier, freight. Business, insurance company or even bank, and each company may have several private chains! Finally you have to invest a lot of time and cost to operate dozens of blockchains every day . If there are partners to let you join them at this time The private chain, you might say "Forget it, or fax me the order!" ”—Paul Brody (Ernst & Young)
“Every time you connect two private chains through a system integrator, you have to pay a lot of money .”
Advantage
  1. Scalability: With the Ethereum public chain implementing fragmentation technology, this advantage is rapidly shrinking.
  2. Privacy protection: At this stage, the classification of public chain / private chain is actually not very accurate. The Aztec , Zether, and Nightfall protocols (both based on the zk-snarks protocol) effectively provide a "private chain model" for the Ethereum public chain, allowing it to switch between the public and private chains. Therefore, a more accurate classification should be the alliance chain and the public chain.
By 2020, the label of the public chain/private chain will gradually disappear. The public and private chains will no longer be two opposing concepts. Instead, the concept of publicly traded/private transactions and confidential contracts/open contracts is changed, and the scope of these transactions and contracts varies according to specific needs, either bilaterally or multilaterally or even publicly.
All in all, the private chain has two major drawbacks compared to the public chain. Not only that, but the two major advantages of the private chain are also rapidly disappearing.
“Technology will evolve over time, so there will be a variety of solutions to solve existing problems. Ultimately, the public-chain platform will have the same performance, scalability and data privacy as the private chain, while at the same time ensuring security and Decentralized."
Feature 1: Privacy protection (predictive machine and public chain privacy)
Enigma founder Guy Zyskind once joked in his MIT graduation thesis that smart contracts can only become commercially valuable if they become "confidential contracts." He later proposed that zk-snarks and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) are the most promising solutions. He said nothing wrong.
What is zk-snarks ? Zk-snarks is a zero-knowledge proof mechanism (ZPK). So what is the zero-knowledge proof mechanism? In short: a zero-knowledge proof mechanism allows you to prove that you own certain information without revealing the content of the information.
Vitalik Buterin explained this concept in detail from a technical point of view in an article published in 2017. Hackernoon also wrote an excellent article explaining the concept in an easy-to-understand way with the example of a five-year-old child and Halloween candy.
What is the trusted execution environment? The trusted execution environment lets the code run on closed hardware, and
1 ) The guarantee result cannot be tampered with
2 ) Protecting absolute privacy, even hardware running code can't get confidential information.
The most well-known trusted execution environment is Intel SGX. Chainlink has established a partnership with Intel SGX after acquiring Tom Crier.
Ernst & Young released the Nightfall agreement on Github on May 31, 2019. A well-known accounting firm with a history of 100 years will choose to add privacy features to the public chain instead of developing a private chain. This is a problem.
Since then, the community has been actively developing on this basis, not only to improve the code, but also to develop a plug-and-play Truffle Box for those who are not good at writing code. Blockchain communities and businesses generally rarely collaborate, so these collaborations fully demonstrate the popularity of Nightfall.
Prior to this, two zk-snark-based Ethereum public chain privacy protocols were introduced, namely AZTEC (Consensys) and Zether (Stanford, JPMorgan Chase). An obvious trend is slowly taking shape.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink uses both zero-knowledge proof and a trusted execution environment to complement each other. Trusted execution environments guarantee data privacy, even for nodes that cannot access data (this feature is critical for bank accounts and API keys).
Chainlink is still trying to implement a trusted execution environment, and nodes can access data temporarily, so authentication services are also needed. Although the credible execution environment is almost 100% foolproof, in theory, a strong shield has a spear that can penetrate it. Therefore, the team is currently trying to run zk-snarks in a trusted execution environment (Thomas Hodges mentioned this in the 2019 Trufflecon Q&A session). The combination of the two can form a very robust and complete system. The attacker must find a way to strip all the layers of an onion at the same time to make any effective attack (and it is already difficult to peel off a layer of skin).
“Chainlink combines a trusted execution environment with zero-knowledge proof to build what we call a defense-in-depth system, which means they provide all the tools needed for smart contract developers, including trusted execution environments, multiple nodes, and Data sources, fine margins, reputation systems, asymmetric encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, WASM, and OTP+RNG, these features allow smart contract developers to adjust the confidentiality and cost of contracts based on specific budget and security needs. Machine, Chainlink and its four major application scenarios》
In the future, zk-snarks may be upgraded to zk-starks (a fully transparent zero-knowledge proof mechanism) that protects the system from quantum computer attacks. And the best thing about zk-starks is that it's more scalable than zk-snarks. In other words, it can better protect privacy, and the cost of gas will not increase.
If you want to learn more about zk-starks, you can read a popular science article written by Adam Luciano.
Feature 2: Scalability (scalability of predictive machines and public chains) To understand this problem, we can make an analogy like this:
A public chain is like a large enterprise, and every employee (ie, a node) must attend each meeting (ie, confirm each transaction). Imagine how inefficient this company is! Only customers who have a lot of money (ie gas fees) can get their requests to the forefront. And this is not the most serious problem. The most serious problem is that the more employees (ie nodes) who join the company, the harder it is for the company to function properly! In the end, the company not only failed to expand linearly, but also became smaller and smaller. Although this guarantees decentralization and security to the greatest extent, the price is completely abandoning scalability.
There are various temporary fire fighting solutions, but no one solution can completely solve this "impossible triangle problem." For example, EOS uses the DPOS mechanism (share authorization certification mechanism), where only 21 super nodes (many of which are well-known nodes) are responsible for verifying all transactions.
Sidechains (such as Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Ethereum's lightning network) guarantee scalability and decentralization at the expense of security.
So how to use the fragmentation technology to solve this problem? Let's make another analogy:
In reality, there is only one company that is not too much to ask everyone to attend all meetings, that is, small start-ups (that is, private chains that limit the number of nodes).
In most cases, large companies divide employees into thousands of teams (ie, shards), and each team's principal (ie, the certifier) ​​is responsible for reporting to the senior management (ie, the main chain). If people from different teams need to collaborate (and sometimes also), then they can collaborate by cross-shard receipts. If a new employee joins the company, the team can be re-segmented (ie re-sharding). This allows for linear expansion.
In fact, the process of developing a start-up to a large enterprise is surprisingly similar to the process of Ethereum 1.0 developing into Ethereum 2.0.
“The Ethereum 1.0 period is that several people who are alone are trying to build a world computer; and Ethereum 2.0 will really develop into a world computer.” Vitalik Buterin said in the first piece of the workshop.
Since Ethereum was not originally built on the principle of fragmentation, it takes seven steps to achieve the goal (this is a bit like the word morphing solitaire game). The first step is planned for January 3, 2020.
At the same time, developers can use many other blockchain platforms designed based on the fragmentation principle. Some platforms, including Zilliqa and Quarkchain, are already compatible with Chainlink.
If you want to see more in-depth technical analysis of shards, check out an article by Ramy Zhang.
In the field of oracles, Chainlink has the following two characteristics:
1 ) Use Schnorr threshold signatures to quickly reach consensus in a cost-effective manner. The next version of the chain only needs 16,000 gas.
2 ) We have previously discussed the need to use trusted execution environment hardware to ensure that nodes cannot access sensitive data. Since you have hardware in your hand, you can use it to do some actual computing work, so that you can properly reduce the amount of computation on the smart contract platform.
"With the SGX system (Town Crier) and zero-knowledge proof technology, the oracle can be truly reliable and confidential, so the boundaries between the oracle and the smart contract are beginning to flow... Our long-term strategy... is to let The predictor becomes the key chain of computing resources used by most smart contracts. We believe that the way to achieve this goal is to perform chain operations in the oracle to meet various computing needs, and then send the results to the smart contract."Chainlink White Paper, Section 6.3 (26 pages)
Of course, this “long-term strategy” has certain risks, unless Chainlink can implement a trusted execution environment and its service provider ecosystem can achieve a qualitative leap. However, the Chainlink team's vision is absolutely forward-looking: under-chain computing is a key factor in ensuring that blockchains are not dragged down by large amounts of IoT data.
The Internet of Things has dramatically increased the current state of big data. At present, most of the data is still generated on the software side, and it is not real-time data, and most of the data in the future will be real-time data generated on the sensor side. One of the big drawbacks of real-time data is that it increases storage pressure. For example, Coughlin Associates expects an unmanned car to generate 1G of data per second. This means that the same car will produce 3.6T data per hour!
The only viable solution is to do real-time analysis of the data, rather than storing the data first. In the Global Cloud Index: 2016-2021 Forecast and Methodology White Paper, Cisco predicts that more than 90% of data in 2021 will be analyzed in real time without storage.
That is to say, the essence of data is that it can only exist in just one instant. The nature of the blockchain is not to be modified, so the two are as incompatible as water and oil.
The solution is to analyze the raw data under the chain, extract the meaningful results and send them to the blockchain. The combination of fragmentation technology and trusted execution environment forms a new computing architecture, similar to the cloud computing-fog computing-edge computing architecture.
It should be noted here that it is good to improve computing power, but this is not the main purpose of the blockchain.
The fundamental purpose of the blockchain is not to reduce the original cost of computing and data storage. After all, technology giants such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce, Tencent, Alibaba, and Dropbox have built world-class cloud services. The centralized server wins high computational efficiency (but the blockchain will greatly improve the computational efficiency through fragmentation technology, and will catch up with it one day). The value of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust. Nick Szabo calls it "social scalability" (this is a relative concept to the "operational" scalability we have been talking about). Vitalik Buterin also made it clear that the meaning of smart contracts is to accept small arithmetic delay penalties in exchange for a substantial reduction in "social costs."
Alex Coventry of the Chainlink team once raised the question: "We have missed many opportunities for cooperation and reciprocity because we can't confirm whether the other party will fulfill the promise?"
Is there any potential for data storage projects like Siacoin and IPFS? What about decentralized computing projects like SONM and Golem?
Siacoin 's core value proposition is not that its computing efficiency is higher than traditional cloud services. The cost of computing is required to split, repeat, and reassemble data. And companies are more capable of buying the latest and greatest hardware than individuals. Siacoin's core value proposition is to process data in an Airbnb-like mode, so management fees will be lower than traditional models. It also generates additional social value, such as flood control, privacy and security, and anti-censorship.
The same is true of Golem and SONM. Even with the most efficient protocol, it is inevitable that a small amount of delay will be imposed and fined to coordinate the hardware of different geographical locations. Therefore, under the condition that all other conditions are equal, the centralized hardware still has the advantage of faster computing speed. However, the core value proposition of the above project is to use the Airbnb-like model to reduce management costs.
We must strictly distinguish between "social scalability" and "operational scalability", and the two cannot be confused. I will explain these two concepts in detail when I discuss "Magic Bus and Lightweight Library" later.
Feature 3: Compatible with legal currency
Most mainstream companies do not regard cryptocurrencies as "real currencies." In addition, even if someone wants to use cryptocurrency for trading, it is very difficult to actually operate because of its high price volatility. I discussed the “price volatility problem” in detail in Chapters 8 and 9 of the previous article. These problems do not completely erase the existence value of cryptocurrencies, because cryptocurrencies also have many advantages that legal currency does not have. I am just emphasizing what we need to know more about the comfort zone of mainstream companies.
Chainlink acts as a universal API connector that triggers open banking payments. Chainlink is fully compliant with ISO 20022 and has established a long-term partnership with SWIFT (it is worth mentioning that SWIFT has not been updated for a long time and hopes to be updated after the SIBOS 2019 conference).
PSD2 will take effect on September 14, 2019. All banks in the EU will all comply with this new regulation by then. In other words, the bank must put all account data in the "front end" and can be called through the API. The approved third party (ie, the Chainlink node) can trigger the payment directly without the payment service provider.
Although the United States and Japan have not adopted similar laws, many banks still spontaneously promote the development of open banks. Banks open APIs to third-party developers to create new revenue streams and customer experiences that ultimately increase profitability. In addition, this will allow banks to better respond to competitors in the mobile payment and financial technology sectors in an APP-centric economic model.
As this open banking revolution continues, Chainlink will connect smart contracts with the world's major currencies (US dollar, euro, yen, etc.).
Only one external adapter is required to connect to the authenticated API. From a programming perspective, it is relatively simple to allow everyone in the community to contribute code to the code base (and thus achieve scalability). Chainlink has released adapters for PayPal and Mister Tango (European version of PayPal).
Feature 4: Data connection with the chain
Chainlink has been working on solving the "prophecy problem" and successfully succeeded on the main online line on May 30, 2019.
Chainlink has made many achievements in just a few months. Provable (formerly Oraclize) was successfully used on the Chainlink node and finally settled the debate about whether the predictor should be centralized or decentralized.
Synthetic Ether lost 37 million Ethercoins in a hack because it did not connect to Chainlink. Fortunately, the money was finally recovered and did not cause any loss. This lesson illustrates the importance of decentralized oracles.
In addition, both Oracle and Google have partnered with Chainlink to monetize their API data and create a virtuous circle to capture the market opportunities that Facebook missed.
There are new nodes coming online every week, and the network activity has been very high. The Chainlink team maintains a list of certified nodes in the documentation and Twitter releases. Twitter user CryptoSponge also set up a new development for the Tableau push update Chainlink team:
Regarding the importance of the current stage in the history of blockchain development, Brad Huston summed it up very brilliantly:
"The biggest problem with cryptocurrencies is to build bridges between cryptocurrencies, fiat currencies and big data. Chainlink is very beautifully narrowing the distance between the three. Now it can even be said: 'The bridge has been built.'"
Magic bus and lightweight library
Let's summarize what we discussed earlier. The real purpose of the blockchain is to reduce the cost of building trust and achieve "social scalability."
Therefore, according to this logic, the main application scenarios of platforms such as Ethereum 2.0 and Zilliqa should be in the B2B field. I quote a sentence I wrote in a previous article:
“My conclusion is: If the smart contract is successful, it will also succeed in the B2B field first.”
The private chain itself is self-contradictory and destined to fail. It has led to the phenomenon of occupying the hills, thus increasing the social cost, which is in opposition to B2B itself, and ultimately it is self-restraint. ”
Before the emergence of fragmentation technology, even simple games (ie, etheric cats) could not be smoothly run on the public chain, let alone dealing with complex B2B contracts and even changing commercial DNA. With the sharding technology, everything is ready.
Despite this, we can't use Ethereum 2.0 as an all-powerful platform. Just now we said that although it is a good thing to speed up the calculation, this is not the real purpose of Ethereum 2.0. And before we also said that due to the irreversible modification of the blockchain, it is not good to deal with a large number of fleeting real-time data of the Internet of Things. In other words, we must be soberly aware that Ethereum 2.0 will not replace traditional web 2.0. Instead, we should make better use of the real advantages of Ethereum 2.0:
“There is a new concept now, that is to think of the Ethereum main network as a global bus... We use the Ethereum 2.0 main network to treat various business resources as a working group on Slack: it can be easily built and integrated. And restructuring. The SAP inventory management system in your company, the dealer's JD Edwards ERP system, and the financial technology partner's tall blockchain system can seamlessly interface, eliminating the need to develop an infrastructure specifically for each partner." - John Wolper describes his ideal "magic bus"
Ethereum 2.0 should be an integration center, not a data center or computing center. It should be a library built specifically to store B2B contract terms (to be honest, even with fragmentation technology, the amount of data is large enough).
We should not expect Ethereum 2.0 to be an all-powerful platform, but rather develop it into a "lightweight library."
If we reorder the pyramid model just now, the architecture of the magic bus is obvious:
Of course, the positional relationship in the above model is not static. With the development of 5G technology, edge computing and IoT sensors, they may bypass the cloud to directly interact (or even bypass the fog end). If the collaboration between Iotex and Chainlink is successful, then the edge can interact directly with the trusted execution environment.
Time will tell if Airbnb's shared data storage and computing model can make management costs lower than the current mainstream Web 2.0 model. Time will also prove whether the market really needs anti-censorship, anti-tampering, security protection and privacy protection. Do users really care about these social values ​​and are willing to pay for them? Do they think these are just the icing on the cake or the most fundamental value?
in conclusion
Whether it is the battle between web2.0 and web3.0 or the battle between cryptocurrency and legal currency, one thing is beyond doubt:
We have reached the tipping point, and the era of smart contracts with commercial value has arrived.
In fact, the only problem at the moment is the time issue, and the main roadblocks have been basically cleared.
  1. When will Ethereum 2.0 finish these 7 stages and be officially released?
  2. When will Chainlink use a trusted execution environment on a large scale? If the cooperation between Intel SGX and Town Crier fails, what alternative plans are there? Will Chainlink communicate with other blockchain teams that plan to use a trusted execution environment (such as Dawn Song's Oasis Labs)?
At present, the main technical problems in the ecosystem have been solved, and now it is only necessary to recruit a group of enthusiastic developers to do the work of “connecting the line”.
Digital currency has changed commercial DNA, and the future is full of possibilities.
The only thing that hinders us now is our own imagination. The future is infinitely imaginative, and the future will be the world of developers. Dapps is already overwhelming. There is no doubt that we have found the ultimate nirvana.
This text was translated from Chinese, open following in Chrome and translate to see all images:
https://bihu.com/article/1242138347
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Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2019/023
Date: 2019-01-08
Author(s): Joachim Breitner, Nadia Heninger

Link to Paper


Abstract
In this paper, we compute hundreds of Bitcoin private keys and dozens of Ethereum, Ripple, SSH, and HTTPS private keys by carrying out cryptanalytic attacks against digital signatures contained in public blockchains and Internet-wide scans. The ECDSA signature algorithm requires the generation of a per-message secret nonce. This nonce must be generated perfectly uniformly, or else an attacker can exploit the nonce biases to compute the long-term signing key. We use a lattice-based algorithm for solving the hidden number problem to efficiently compute private ECDSA keys that were used with biased signature nonces due to multiple apparent implementation vulnerabilities.

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  36. The Sage Developers: SageMath, the Sage Mathematics Software System (Version 8.1) (2017), http://www.sagemath.org
  37. Valsorda, F.: Exploiting ECDSA failures in the bitcoin blockchain. Hack In The Box (HITB) (2014)
  38. Ylonen, T., Lonvick, C.: The Secure Shell (SSH) transport layer protocol. IETF RFC 4253 (2006)
submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Payment-channels for Resource Limited IoT Devices

arXiv:1812.10345
Date: 2018-12-26
Author(s): Christopher Hannon, Dong Jin

Link to Paper


Abstract
Resource-constrained devices are unable to maintain a full copy of the Bitcoin Blockchain in memory. This paper proposes a bidirectional payment channel framework for IoT devices. This framework utilizes Bitcoin Lightning-Network-like payment channels with low processing and storage requirements. This protocol enables IoT devices to open and maintain payment channels with traditional Bitcoin nodes without a view of the blockchain. Unlike existing solutions, it does not require a trusted third party to interact with the blockchain nor does it burden the peer-to-peer network in the way SPV clients do. The contribution of this paper includes a secure and crypto-economically fair protocol for bidirectional Bitcoin payment channels. In addition, we demonstrate the security and fairness of the protocol by formulating it as a game in which the equilibrium is reached when all players follow the protocol.

References
[1] K. Christidis and M. Devetsikiotis, “Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 2292–2303, 2016.
[2] J. Basden and M. Cottrell, “How utilities are using blockchain to modernize the grid,” Harvard Business Review, 2017.
[3] S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.” http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, 2008.
[4] V. Buterin, “Ethereum white paper: A next gerneration smart contract and decentralized application platform,” tech. rep., 2014.
[5] “Bitcoin wiki.” https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki. Accessed: 2018-05-28.
[6] J. Poon and T. Dryja, “The bitcoin lightning network,: Scalable off-chain instant payments,” 2016.
[7] C. Decker and R. Wattenhofer, “A fast and scalable payment network with bitcoin duplex micropayment channels,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems - Volume 9212, (Berlin, Heidelberg), pp. 3–18, Springer-Verlag, 2015.
[8] brainbot, “The raiden network.” https://raiden.network, 2018. Accessed: 2018-05-28.
[9] H. A. Kalodner, S. Goldfeder, A. Chator, M. Moser, and A. Narayanan, ¨ “Blocksci: Design and applications of a blockchain analysis platform,” CoRR, vol. abs/1709.02489, 2017.
[10] P. Wuille, “Bip32: Hierarchical deterministic wallets.” https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0032.mediawiki. Accessed: 2018-05-28.
[11] M. Green and I. Miers, “Bolt: Anonymous payment channels for decentralized currencies.” Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/701, 2016. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701.
[12] J. Poon and V. Buterin, “Plasma: Scalable autonomous smart contracts.” https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf, 2017. Accessed: 2018-10-28.
[13] S. Popov, “The tangle.” https://www.iota.org/research/academic-papers, 2018. Accessed: 2018-10-28.
[14] N. Z. Aitzhan and D. Svetinovic, “Security and privacy in decentralized energy trading through multi-signatures, blockchain and anonymous messaging streams,” IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, pp. 1–1, 2016.
[15] M. Mihaylov, S. Jurado, N. Avellana, K. Van Moffaert, I. M. de Abril, and A. Nowe, “Nrgcoin: Virtual currency for trading of renewable ´ energy in smart grids,” in European Energy Market (EEM), 2014 11th International Conference on the, pp. 1–6, IEEE, 2014.
[16] E. Mengelkamp, B. Notheisen, C. Beer, D. Dauer, and C. Weinhardt, “A blockchain-based smart grid: towards sustainable local energy markets,” Computer Science-Research and Development, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 207–214, 2018.
[17] A. Dorri, S. S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, and P. Gauravaram, “Blockchain for iot security and privacy: The case study of a smart home,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), pp. 618–623, March 2017.
[18] G. Liang, S. R. Weller, F. Luo, J. Zhao, and Z. Y. Dong, “Distributed blockchain-based data protection framework for modern power systems against cyber attacks,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (Early Access), 2018.
submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

DEVCON2 report: Day Three - Final day

previous days
Question: the 3 days of devcon are over. Are people interested in reports on the next 3 days of international Blockchain week (demo day + 2 days of global Blockchain summit) http://www.blockchainweek2016.org
`
Event update
The buzz during the day was around the "stick puzzle" that Bok Khoo was giving out to people. It is just a stick, with a loop of string. He gets you to turn away, he uses "the trick" to put it onto your bag and then you try to get it off.
The WeChat channel was just filled with everyone asking where they can get it, and the screaming that they can't figure it out. Only about 5 people reported they were able to solve it (I haven't yet)
http://imgur.com/mYfJQP4 http://imgur.com/4Euka1a
`
Sessions
I'm biased, but I thought the announcement from Microsoft with the update of cryptlets was a big deal. The morning sessions covered a few different oracle systems, the afternoon had lots of IPFS sessions.
Microsoft - A Lap around Cryptlets
https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/cryptletsdd/ https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/templates/ethereum-consortium-blockchain-network/ https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/authomarleyg
Microsoft was a sponsor of Devcon1 & 2 Ethereum is a 1st class citizen Support for community & partners - Bizspark, Meetups, Workshops
Announcing: Bletchley v1 Distributed Ledger stack V1 is a private Ethrerum consortium, that you can spin up for your own enterprise / group
http://imgur.com/olwwd36
Cryptlets are being developed to help with security, identity, etc. How do you get trusted external data feeds injected into the Blockchain? Doing things on a specific interval (every 15 mins) When price of something hits a threshold (oil goes above $40/barrel) Secure IP protected algorithms, but still share with blockchain network. Use libraries for common platforms (.Net, Java, etc)
Cryptlets vs Oracle Cryptlets will have a marketplace on Azure that will allow you to purchase and utilise
Use case: Trigger on an event Wake up on 4pm, if market was open that day, then give me the price of gold for that day.Get signature of attested server, attested sender.
Use case: Control Using smart contract like a traditional DB. Declare data you are keeping track of, and the functions/"stored proc" to update that data. Cryptlet runs off chain, and can be scaled up.
http://imgur.com/ysgL8S2
Utility cryptlet. Use an attribute in solidity contract with cryptlet details Developer references at design time the cryptlet they want the contract to call Contract cryptlet, deploy the cryptlet at same time as contract.
Why would you want Azure to do this? SGX allows you to create "secure enclaves", can have complete isolation on the hardware chip where it is not modifable. Provides a secure enclave at the CPU level. Can give full attestation right down to the silicon. Will be provided as a enclave container on Azure. Will be released for .NET core CLR first, then other languages. Can create cryptlet libraries that you can scale and put into the Azure marketplace. An ecosystem for developers & ISVs to consume and publish.
Bletchley v1 released today will let you spin up a private consortium. Before today, it took a long time to try and deploy a private consortium (can take weeks to read doco, Now takes 5 minutes to deploy! Creates a private consortium, puts each member in its own separate subnet
http://imgur.com/w4yUsqE
Mist Vision and Demo I was too busy sharing the release posts of Microsoft project bletchey v1, missed this talk. It did look interesting, I will watch this one later. Idea: Reward for bandwidth. Providing connection could replace mining as entrance point for desktop computers. Allow you to have a trickle so you can trigger smart contracts. Standardised backends, so that you can swap out the underlying node between geth, blockapps, etc.
Web3.js
https://github.com/ethereum/web3.js Etehereum JS API Smart conracts are EVM opcodes, Helps translates calls to JSON RPC calls. Helps do the ABI encoding when sending data from JS to EVM It kept on growing, many different utility functions being thrown in. Is time to clean it up and be refactored.
They are now building a NEW web3.js The communication will be socket based, will enable subscriptions. Everything will be based on promises to subscribe to events, like log events. Bunch of other newer cleaner methods and ways to do things like deploying contracts.
Smart contract security
Was a very good postmorteum of The DAO and things that could be done to mitigate it in the future.
An issue with The DAO was trying to do a massive jump from centralisation all the way to full decentralisation. Meant no one could step up and make a decision on how to save it. We need to make smaller steps towards full decentralisation as we learn as a community how to do this. Same security patterns as yesterday's talks: check invarients, beware 1024 call stack depth, reentry exploit (update state BEFORE executing calls), timestamps are manipulatable. Updateable contracts. Who can update it? Community multisig? We need better rools: formal verification, compiler warnings, improved IDEs, trusted libraries, excape hatches
Conclusion: It is still very early days in this space, be careful.
A Provably Honest Oracle Model: Auditable Offchain Data Gathering & Computations
Oracalize is the most widely used oracle (until everyone starts using Microsoft Azure cryptlets ;-) ) Contract calls Oracalize contract with the data they want, off chain they see this get the data, Oracalise then trigger their contract externally, which does a callback to your contract with the data. Can use external notary servers. Can get proof from multiple external services to get a higher level of confidence about data (e.g. stock price from a few feeds). Off-chain (auditable_ computation) AWS sandbox 2.0. Put the execution package onto IPFS, AWS gets it and executes it, signs it.
iEx.ec: Fully Distributed Cloud Thanks to the Ethereum Blockchain
http://iex.ec/ Provides blockchain based execution environments Global market for computing resources. Idea is to do what we did before with "grid computing" use the idle capacity of computers. But this time do a trickle of micropayments. Allows people to harness this global power to execute their tasks in a global "distributed cloud".
The Final frontier: The company smart conract
http://otonomos.com/ Helping companies to incorporate on the blockchain.
Smart oracles
https://github.com/smartoracles Connecting to external resources is difficult. Hard to try and use external currencies (like a bank account / fiat money) to make transactions. Could hook in paypal, HSBC, wells fargo, etc. Can provide your own payment services as an API to a smart oracle for smart contracts to consume. Do off chain data storage by calling smart oracle API Roadmap: more data sources & more payment methods
IPFS & Ethereum: Updates
https://Ipfs.io IPFS is AMAZING, seriously go watch the full 1 hour talks Juan has given in previous years.
Current web has current issues. Centralisation, etc. IPFS is a new hypermedia transfer protocol Content can be retrieved not from specific servers, but instead via it's hash so that it can come from anywhere in the network (maybe from the person next to you who has cached it). It is highly modular, all of the transfer protocals, routing, naming, etc. are all swapable Is available as GO-IPFS & now JS-IPFS Means now you can run IPFS in the browser IPFS was great for static content, but not so great for dynamic content. Low latency pub/sub protocol will help with dynamic data. Created a distributed peer to peer chat app using this new dynamic content protocol. IPLD a common link-tree hash format Will be able to use IPFS to retrieve ethereum blockchain blocks DIRECTLY Can use IPFS as a package manager to retrieve them in a distributed manner.
Many projects are using Ethereum & IPFS Uport, Digix, Infura, Ujo, Eris, Blockfreight. Filecoin was created as a way to try and incentivize nodes to keep files longer time. People rent out hdd space to earn filecoin. Exchange bitcoin/filecoin. Use filecoin to store files in network. Filecoin is going to be built on top of the public Ethereum blockchain, as a virtual blockchain / token.
IPFS Libp2p & Ethereum networking
Network connectivity between any 2 nodes can be difficult. Censorship, bandwidth, network issues, etc. Having to deal with different networking topologies and access. Libp2p & Devp2p is different. Devp2p is for Ethereum. LIbp2p is modular, can swap out components to change network access, encryption methods, etc. Can build up a MEGA mesh network, by utilising traditional wired internet, radio, bluetooth between some nodes. Web browser using web socket, to a node, which routes across network, to zigbee to a IoT device. Libp2p & Devp2p could merge and augment each other. Could create the libp2p components to replace the devp2p bits Any 2 nodes that speak the same protocol can communicate and be a part of the network chain. Experiment. They took the browser based version of EVM. Then used Libp2p to talk to the Ethereum network. Had a complete ethereum node running in a browser.
Uport
https://uport.me/ Universal identity platform Current challenges: key management. Ux for average person. Dapps via mobile. Identity and data ownership. How do you keep a consistent identity, even if you lose a key. Have some multisig contracts that you can use to keep track. Social recovery, use your friends to attest it is really you. Keep private key on mobile, do transactions on the desktop, scan a QR code to sign the transaction on your phone and send it off.
A Deep Dive into the Colony Foundation Protocol
It is an open source governance protocol built on Ethereum Problem with voting is how to prevent Sybil attacks. Votes are weighted by a reputation score. Reputation is non-transferable that can only be earned. Total weighted voting helps mitigate this.
Chain orchestration tooling & smart contract package management
Eris is tooling for developers. Package manager to build your own blockchain. Can compose a chain, e.g. geth + tendermint consensus. Init, install, do. Can easily install on Mac/bew, linux/apt-get, Windows/choco
The Golem Project: Ethereum-based market for computing power
http://www.golemproject.net/ Anyone can make an offer to sell computing power. e.g. Distributed rendering Want to create a standard framework that anyone can use to submit and process jobs.
Status: Integrating Ethereum Into Our Daily Lives
https://status.im Want to get ethereum everywhere. "Mist for Mobile" Everyone is using their mobile phones for everything, but mostly using instant messaging. What would Ethereum in a IM window look? Created a IM mobile app that has a local geth node. tart up, it asks you to create a password, it generates a pub/private pair. Then can send messages via whisper, and the messages are signed with your public key. Can load Dapps up in the local webview and interact with them. Allows you to create "chat Dapps", that you interact with via text. Like chatbots
Maker Ecosystem Overview
www.Makerdao.com Dai: seeking stability on blockchain. Stablecoin engine: smart contract that holds collateral reserves and controls the Dai lifecycle. MKR: open source community managing risk of the system In the last year, investing in a solid technical core. More slow and audit things. Moving into the next phase of stablecoin development. Their latest project is the "Simplecoin project" Meeting Thereum community's need for stability. An independent platform for creating centrally administered simple stablecoins. Issues create their own rule sets: Collateral types, participant whitelists, security parameters. Example: Shrutebucks. The only people who own it are Dwight, Jim & Pam. They backed it with 1/3 ETH 1/3 DGX 1/3 DUSD.
Orbit. A distributed peer to peer app on IPFS
https://github.com/haadcode Created a full distributed chat room, itself distributed through IPFS. It is integrated with uPort for identification Using uPort allows you to verify that you are talking to the correct person in the chat channel. All their messages are signed with their public keys He also created a full distribited twitter clone, using uport for the identity as well. Orbit-db key value store DB that stores its data on IPFS. Eventually consistent Appends data to the DB, an event is sent to those subscribed on pub/sub so they can see the latest root hash. Based on CRDT Ethereum + Pubsub + CRDTs + IPFS = super power primatives to build dynamic distributed apps
Development considerations with distributed apps. Need to ensure that apps work offline. No centralised servers. No data silos. Provide integration path.
Future work: could you use uPort for ACL like permissions? Mobile use cases, how to make it work nicely on mobiles
Building scalable React Dapp architecture
https://github.com/SilentCicero/react-dapp-boilerplate React + Ethereum He has a configured boilerplate template. Has contract scaffolding. Enforced contract Linting/testing. Wallet generation/identity. Preconfigured web3 instance. UI: Mature react arhitecture "react boilerplate". Prices listed in USD with ETH/btc via kraken api. A basic multi-contract example Dapp. Offline first, dapp runs without internet. Uses Redux. State models in UI & blockchains work well. PostCSS, CSS Modules, sanitize.cs. Redux, immutableJS, reslect, redux-saga, i18n, redux-router. Web3, ethdeploy, dapple, solium, eth-lightwallet, chaithereum, ethereumjs0-testrpc Enforced contract testing in 2 languages.
Ethereum for Enterprise (BlockApps Strato)
Trying to make sure that Ethereum stays relevent to enterprise development. Why do you need a blockchain WITHIN an org, shouldn't they trust each other? Well different departments may not, they may reconcile differently, and can help automate/orchestrate between them. Blockchain is the "killer app" for cloud financial services. Legacy infrastructure, batch prossing, etc are all restricting fintech from progressing. Blockchain can happen in real time, can replace legacy. Ethereum is very flexible and programmable, works well. There are others based on Bitcoin (like Hyperledger). Ethereum + Blockapps = Extreme productivity + Proven Technology. Blockapps is extending Ethereum for Enterprise. Runs very well on Azure Enterprises don't want all their data exposed on public chain. Blockapps helps solve data privacy and scaling with multichain fabrics.
submitted by DavidBurela to ethereum [link] [comments]

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
1. What is Helix?
Helix Cognitive Computing GmbH is a Berlin-based strategic tech company, dedicated to creating a cutting-edge digital ecosystem for interconnecting Everyone and Everything. Helix aims to challenge the status quo by eliminating the need for intermediaries and central authorities, at virtually no cost. For more information, you can visit our website at www.hlx.ai.
2. What problem is Helix solving?
Helix solves problems associated with centralized systems and management. Rather than blindly relying on third-party promises, Helix builds trust by adopting public consensus mechanisms. Thus, it fosters the creation of endless new relationships and businesses that are more ‚direct‘ in nature. Helix enables the use of end-to-end encryption to emit secured data streams, implying that you can fully control which parties are authorized to access your messages or data.
By eliminating intermediaries, Helix enables trustless transactions. It is no longer required to blindly trust any intermediary, whether it is a storage or financial service provider, such as banks. An example includes the creation of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) that are direct, peer-to-peer and organize their company through digital voting systems. This could be achieved for any organization using the HelixFramework involving no payment fees to Helix. The Helix Consensus Protocol is leveraged to achieve data integrity instead of that (for more information about the HelixTangle, please refer to the Whitepaper on our website: https://www.hlx.ai/whitepaper), i.e., transactions that have reached agreement are serialized to the ledger and are immutable.
3. What makes Helix different to others?
  • The Helix Consensus Protocol (HCP) enables efficient and secure transaction processing at virtually no cost, opposed to legacy blockchains.
  • We are building an application by the name of HelixComposer. Helix assigns great importance to usability and accessibility by providing an interface for people who do not have prior knowledge in cryptocurrencies or computer sciences. The HelixComposer and its graphical user interface provide the middle layer or rather the "interaction layer" between users and the network infrastructure. It enables interactive guidance and tools for designing own decentralized applications and defining smart contracts.
  • We have community service, the HelixFoundation. The HelixFoundation assures the sustainability of the HelixNetwork. The HelixNetwork consists of Nodes (Computers) executing HCP and overlay networks (such as Flash and MAM), that are leveraged to achieve greater scalability and privacy. Further, the HelixFoundation is dedicated to creating educational workshops in the realm of Distributed Ledger Technologies, as we feel a great need of educating interested people and promote young talents.
4. Is Helix an active player in the Blockchain space?
Helix is active in the Distributed Ledger Technologies DLT space with its own Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network protocol – not based on Blockchain principles. The Helix Distributed Ledger is modeled as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), a well-known data structure with excellent properties in terms of scalability.
5. What does decentralization mean?
Decentralization is a term used in network topology to describe the relations between different node types. Centralized systems typically consist of a client-server architecture or slave nodes listening to a coordinator.
https://i.redd.it/8pue5gmq1fg11.png
Decentralization promotes the elimination of unnecessary intermediaries, from the transfer of value between persons and things.
6. What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?
Distributed Ledger Technology encompasses an extensive database consisting of synchronized digital records. Examples of records maintained by DLTs include monetary transactions (e.g., Bitcoin Blockchain), titles and rights to intellectual property, creative content, music, votes, healthcare records, and other sensitive or confidential material.
7. What is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?
A Directed Acyclic Graph is a particular type of graph consisting of nodes connected to each other by directed edges. The term ‘Directed’ refers to the idea that edges have directions (like a street map), while ‘Acyclic’ implies that it is not possible to walk from a node X and return to X without going back on a previously used edge (for example no U-turns!).
8. What is a P2P Network?
The architecture of most computer applications on the internet is two-tiered. In a two-tiered architecture, there is a clear division between clients and servers. For example, a typical banking application allows a client to prepare transactions on his/her local machine, and upload the transaction to the bank's centralized server or database. In contrast to the two-tiered architecture of centralized applications, P2P systems equally distribute all aspects of the application across participants, which enables workloads, resources, and values to be shared, and additionally, eliminates the need for peers to trust central authorities.
9. What is “cognition”?
The word cognition derives from the Latin term cognosco which means 'to conceptualize'. Cognition can be defined as the mental act of acquiring and understanding knowledge through senses, experience, and thought.
10. What does “cognitive computing” mean?
Cognitive computers imitate human intelligence by processing data with a set of rules and procedures that can be updated iteratively, based on the value of the incoming data on an asneeded basis. Cognitive computing systems can provide highly accurate descriptions of visual and linguistic data, just like humans. A developing cognitive computer system relies on machine learning strategies, and the scientific study of biological systems, including their cognitive abilities that sustain autonomous, self-driven learning.
11. How is Helix funded today and do you plan an ICO – when?
Currently, Helix is funded by global private and institutional investors. In order to optimize its strategy and operations to the interest of both public (i.e. community) and professional investors, Helix decides to defer its ICO until a better perception in the markets evolves. Helix also intends to evaluate other forms of global coin distribution models where the public audience would be involved in schemes similar to Bounty Programs or Air Drops rather than an ICO. For more detailed information about ICO and Coins, please refer to the Helix ICO & Coins Quick Facts on our website: https://hlx.ai/whitepaper.
12. What is a cryptocurrency after all?
A cryptocurrency is a digital means of payment created and transferred using cryptographic principles, to enable a decentralized and secure payment system.
13. What is HLX?
HLX is the cryptocurrency developed by Helix Cognitive Computing.
14. Why is HLX called "Cognitive Cryptocurrency"?
Every transaction initiated in the HelixTangle results from the process of cognition. Helix uses cognitive scientific methods for purposes of security and validation in the network. For example, in order to approve or validate a transaction, Helix introduces the first ever transaction ledger in the crypto world, which secures transactions using artificial intelligence techniques such as decentralized deep learning, a unique ability to understand, reason and learn about cyber-attacks and threats.
15. Who can use HLX?
HLX is for everyone and everything. You do not need to create a large valued transaction to use the HelixTangle. And since there is no fee, both people and machines can attach their micro-valued transactions to the HelixTangle. Thus, the HelixTangle can be used for machineto-machine settlement, person-to-machine, or machine-to-person payments.
16. Who needs HLX?
The HLX coin is the means of digital exchange in the HelixTangle.
17. How I can mine HLX and how expensive are the transaction fees?
You cannot "mine" the HelixTangle because the Helix protocol does not require intermediaries like miners. The upshot is that the HelixTangle does not waste valuable resources like energy or natural space. Regarding transaction fees, there are none!
18. How are HLX created?
The HLX amount was set in advance by a human council. The sum is set in advance in the code and implemented in the HelixTangle. The Total Coin Supply is calculated from (244 * 244).
19. What is the maximum number of HLX Coins that can be in circulation?
Our maximum amount will be 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX or 4,292,493,394 mHLX. We also tend to say, in short, but imprecisely: "The total supply is approximately 4,3 petaHLX".
20. What is the difference between mHLX and HLX?
Because the number 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX is rather inconvenient to use, we count in millions of HLX, calling that unit mHLX (“Mega Helix”).
So the integer of the total coin supply divided by a million results in the total mHLX supply of 4,292,493,394 mHLX.
21. Is the HLX supply infinite?
The HLX coin supply is finite, not infinite. In other words, there are a limited number of HLX coins. In contrast to the Keynesian economic models of most states, the HLX coin supply is not inflationary because no one can “print money” as they need it, and arbitrary coins are never generated.
22. On which exchange platforms for trading HLX will be available?
To be announced after the ICO.
23. Where can I store my HLX?
Once the HLX coins are prepared for transfer to third parties, you can store your HLX inside the HelixWallet software that will be provided in time for the coin transfers.
24. Is Helix' focus on the HLX coin or the Tangle?
First and foremost, Helix is not about the cryptocurrency but rather a protocol for introducing next-generation technology in decentralized distributed computing. It can be said that the cryptocurrency HLX is a necessity to our peer-to-peer network. To be able to tap the full potential of the HelixTangle you need currency. It is not possible to pay with fiat money on the Tangle, and this is not a plan.
25. Is the HelixNetwork better than a Blockchain P2P network?
Yes. Advantages of the HelixNetwork over traditional Blockchain P2P networks include:
  • Cost – Transactions in the Tangle are free of charge and occur at a far higher speed
  • Scalability - Transaction confirmation speed increases linearly with the numbers of tips
  • Decentralization – The Helix Tangle eliminates the need for mining or miners
  • Environmentally Friendly – e.g., No waste of electrical energy
  • Can be used by the emerging machine economy (=IoT and sensors).
26. Why is the Tangle faster than a Blockchain?
New transactions in the Tangle confirm two previous transactions. This makes the Tangle infinitely scalable. Blockchain, on the other hand, sees several transactions packed into one block and these blocks are charged every ten minutes.
27. What is unique about the Tangle?
The HLX coin can be used like any other cryptocurrency. The network protocol was specially designed to connect devices. Companies and people gather data every day with a myriad of devices such as weather sensors or sensors in machinery and healthcare. But almost every piece of information is not used or recycled. The HelixNetwork can tackle it in two ways: It can save data in a way, such that no one other than yourself has access to the data. Moreover, it allows a free transaction between the owner and the one who wants to acquire the data. While we already realize how relevant data is at present, in the future, data will play an even more significant role.
28. How is data stored in the Tangle?
Suppose you want to send a JPG file to someone. First, your picture will be split into several parts and stored in a special field of various Helix transactions.
To send data or communicate with someone on the HelixTangle, you store data in the shared, public version of the Tangle for a limited amount of time. When you, or someone else you authorize, retrieve the data, you are reading the data directly from the HelixTangle in its most current state. The transactions containing your data will not be removed until a snapshot, which is like sending data off into oblivion. After the data has been forgotten, all transaction objects valued at 0 are deleted from the shared, public HelixTangle. If someone would want to read your data from the HelixTangle, that would mean that they must take the precisely same walk through the graph you already did, and only then they would recover the original walk, or message, or data. To simplify this process and stay up to certain privacy requirements, we use a module called Masked Authenticated Messaging. It enables a private, public or restricted encrypted data stream, wherein the restricted scheme, for instance, a channel identifier key and a private key would be required to access the data stream.
29. Is the data stored in the Tangle or does the data only pass through the Tangle?
To be certain of the correctness of your data, in other words, to achieve data integrity, it is mandatory that data is stored in the Tangle. Due to Proof of Work requirements and confirmation times, this could lead to problems in a scenario like a messaging app, where remotely instant data transfer is required. In these cases, it is recommended to use an overlay network like Flash. Flash enables the creation of a multi-signature wallet (that holds a balance predefined by the parties) by two or more parties that trust each other. Transactions in a flash channel are almost instant, with delays only associated to network propagation. When the channel is closed by the parties, the last state of the balances of the parties is synchronized to the Tangle. This procedure eliminates a lot of overhead, supports scalability of the overall system, i.e., the HelixNetwork and enables a tremendous throughput of transactions.
30. How is the data sent?
You can use the interface provided in the official HelixWallet. Using the Interface, you will be able to publish data into the Tangle and restrict access to your needs.
31. What are possible use cases for the HelixTangle?
To give a few examples:
  • Bio data platform - BEAMS (Helix' first spin-off, more information at www.beams.ai)
  • Recording diagnostics
  • Supply Chain Transparency (Manufacturing)
  • Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) Energy & Utilities (The era of microgrids)
  • Public transport (Train, bus)
  • Licensing (Music, movies)
  • Votes (Government)
  • Post-shipping companies (UPS, DHL)
  • Food Industry (Food tracking)
32. Do I need HLX to use the Tangle?
It is not entirely necessary to own HLX to use the Tangle. In the future, you will be able to use the Helix Tangle to store and send your data to other people securely.
33. When will the HelixTangle / Network be available?
The MainNet should be launched in Q1 of 2019.
34. How can I synchronize with Helix' progress?
To keep up to date, you can follow our Social Media Accounts, or get informed through our website and Discord server.
Helix is active on the following Social Media Platforms:
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/WztYaYP
Telegram: https://t.me/helixfoundation
Twitter: https://twitter.com/FoundationHelix
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Helix-Foundation-874464419427146/
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/hcc-gmbh/
Medium: https://medium.com/helix-foundation
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTC_SlcpU4V9juYkIN87rKA
Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4794230.0
35. What are Helix' intentions regarding Post-Quantum-Cryptography?
Helix’ proof of work is minimal which means the difference of performance between a quantum computer (QC) and a normal computer is minimal (~QC would be roughly 100 times more efficient than an average everyday computer, in blockchain a QC would be 14 billion times more efficient than a high-end mining pool). The difference is great.
Helix uses Schnorr signatures, which are based on the discrete logarithm problem. It achieves high performance and privacy standards and is widely studied and accepted in the industry. The problem is it’s susceptibility to quantum computations (to be more specific Shor’s algorithm implementation on QCS). Although we see the quantum era as a massive threat to existing cryptographic methods, we are sure of the fact that certain attacks, which are currently only theoretically modeled, will need a few more years to become practical enough for sufficient incentive of an adversary. While Helix is determined to come up with solutions for the quantum era, we decide to take a route quite different from our predecessor. Instead of publishing “quantum proof” algorithms (that the scientific community hasn’t had a chance to study yet), now in a time where there is no practical QC attack, seems kind of premature. In a realm, where trust is the highest good, seems premature.
The general idea is to use, what achieves the best performance and security standards today, while initiating the research needed to sustain all of the computing eras that lie ahead.
36. What Helix areas and brands are worth to know?
  • HelixEcosystem - All systems, users, community associated with the HelixTangle
  • HelixTangle - Helix’ initiated P2P network protocol (a next-generation internet)
  • HelixPlatform - The place for developers and community to interact with the HelixTangle
  • HelixWallet - Interface to manage participation in the HelixEcosystem
  • HelixVirtualMachine - Provides secure access to the computing power of the HelixTangle
  • HelixComposer - Toolkit to build your dApps (decentralized use cases)
  • HelixWetware - Helix’ future initiative for a DNA-based molecular storage system
  • HelixFoundation - the Non-Profit arm of Helix to foster HelixEcosystem and R&D
  • HelixCognitiveComputing - the Commercial legal entity of HelixGroup
  • HLX - Helix Cognitive Cryptocurrency
  • BEAMS - A bio data platform powered by the HelixTangle
submitted by HelixFoundation to helixfoundation [link] [comments]

Storage Networking Security Series: Key Management 101 Evan Duffield interviewed on DASH Evolution and Bitcoin Scalability, Labitconf horizontal vs vertical scaling Zarr: Scalable Storage of Tensor Data for Use in Parallel and Distributed Computing  SciPy 2019 Introduction to IPFS and Decentralized Storage

NTT Corp.) Niji: Bitcoin Bridge Utilizing Payment Channels SB5-22 play_circle_filled Alexei Zamyatin, Dominik Harz, Joshua Lind, Panayiotis Panayiotou, Arthur Gervais and William J. Knottenbelt (Imperial College London) Interoperability with Cryptocurrency-backed Tokens SB5-23 Blocksize Debate Rages while Bitcoin-NG Addresses Bitcoin Scalability Issues. Bitcoin Blog. Blocksize Debate Rages while Bitcoin-NG Addresses Bitcoin Scalability Issues. Hans Lombardo November 11, 2015 No tags. The Bitcoin block size debate continues to rage as the price of cryptocurrency experienced significant volatility last week. ever increasing block sizes on Bitcoin portends a potential problem where the sys-tem will reach its maximum capacity to clear transactions, probably by 2017 [47]. As a result, the cryptocurrency community has been discussing techniques for improving scalability of blockchains in general, and Bitcoin in particular, for some time. Its decentralized feature has a broad application prospect, but still faces scalability problem. Currently, blockchain scalability bottleneck is mainly in three aspects: performance inefficiency, high confirmation delay, and function extension. For example, Bitcoin can only deal with 7 transactions per second averagely. Scaling Bitcoin Workshops are focused on raising technical awareness of scalability issues, simulations and proposals to improve scalability. Conference participants want this event to be entirely focused on the science and engineering, which is how Open Source Software development has proven to deliver excellence.

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Storage Networking Security Series: Key Management 101

Walk around video of a very versatile storage building, utilizing multiple windows, walk through and overhead doors, work bench, electrical power outlets and lighting, a great use of space! Many scientific problems involve computing over large N-dimensional typed arrays of data, and reading or writing data is often the major bottleneck limiting speed or scalability. The Zarr project ... Evan Duffield interviewed on DASH Evolution and Bitcoin Scalability, Labitconf ... The next stage of DASH development will be featuring decentralized social data storage, social network ... At this event, SKALE invites core members of Arweave, Guer and Gitcoin to discuss how developers can benefit from new interoperability solutions for decentralized storage Context: In order to keep ... Introduction to IPFS and Decentralized Storage by Ganesh Prasad Kumble, Platform Lead Innovation at Aicumen Technologies Ganesh is a Tech entrepreneur bootstrapping DeepTech startups since 2013.

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